Union of Myanmar is striving to promote national education standard according to our motto, “Building a Modern-developed Nation through Education”. Education is major aspect of development of any modern nations. Education is expected to raise the development of human resources who are essential for the contemporary society. The main trust of the education sector is not only quantitative expansion, but qualitative improvement as well. Today, the world is rapidly changing. Society’s thinking changes from decade to decade and century to century and today era is Globalization era. Globalization influences on society, human beings, trade and economic, education and so on. Besides, Globalization also influences on curriculum, teachers, teaching methodology and assessments. This paper focuses on the effects of Globalization on teaching revolution in Myanmar. We can find teaching with global perspectives, the use of Information and Communication Technology in Myanmar Education, and current status of assessment in Myanmar .It is hoped that the facts in this paper will contribute some benefits to the reader.
Key Words: Globalization, Teaching Revolution
Society’s thinking changes from decade to decade, generation to generation, century to century. Human has been striving to develop their ethnic and country. They also emphasize their innovations and new ideas to develop for their society. Because human being strive and the world is changing from era to era and develop in many areas (e.g, human eat raw meat when they are in stone era and nowadays they eat food in many ways in accordance with many culture, like European food, Chinese food, Japanese food , Thailand food and Myanmar food. etc.) . That is the use of technology and trade between the country, and cultural exchange and it is the form of globalization. Today, our world is global era and the world like a village because of using updated communication and technology. Globalization has a wide ranging potential to influence all sector of development.
Globalization is the spread of products, technology, information, and jobs across national borders and cultures (Carol M. Kopp, 2020). Globalization can be defined as a process or condition of the cultural, political, economic, and technological meeting and mixing of people, ideas, and resources, across local, national, and regional borders. Every country is implementing new education system that is appropriate their culture and tradition. The innovations of new education promoted to a new modern society. Education is one of the bases to develop all sectors in a country such as social, economics, politics and so on. The consequence of globalization and education is crucial for economic development. Knowledge, learning, information and technical competence are the new raw materials of international commerce. The importance of education, strategies for education and economic development can be linked to alternative typical neo- Fordist and post-Fordist routes to economic development which have profoundly different educational implications (Braund, P &Lauder, H, 1990).
Today, in our country, one of the development tasks is to modernize school education to face new challenges. Thus, the State endeavors to enhance the quality, accessibility and diversity of education. By this way, education that can generate highly qualified human resource will be created. In studying “how globalization influence teaching revolution”, if influence on organizational structure, education Polices, curriculum, pedagogy and assessment. We can find the influence of globalization on teaching revolution in Myanmar. Thus, it is hoped that the facts in this paper will contribute some benefits to the reader.
2. Literature Review
As aforementioned, people around the world are more connected with each other. There is need of understanding of interaction of human society and environment all the more. Education in global society has greater responsibility of shaping preferred future of the students. Globalization is the system of interaction among the countries of the world in order to develop the global economy. Globalization refers to the integration of the economics and societies all over the world (AP.USH).Globalization involves technological, economic, political, and cultural exchanges made possible largely by advances in communication, transportation, and infrastructure. Exploration of change, interdependence, identity and diversity, rights and responsibilities, peace building, poverty and wealth, sustainability and global justice keys areas where education has to play vital role. Moreover, developing skills of cooperation, shared responsibilities, critical thinking and communication are important role in education. Enabling young people to participate in shaping a better shared future for the world is at the heart of global education (Ausaids, 2011). It emphasizes the unity and interdependence of human society, developing a sense of self and appreciation of cultural diversity, affirmation of social justice and human rights, building peace and actions for a sustainable future in different times and places.
Globalization has brought about many changes in human life. The impact of globalization could be seen everywhere, from the food we industry to the music that one listens (Jarvis, 2017, cited in Ukessays). And it is obvious that globalization was about the economic benefit about at first and later had also impacted many categories of human lives such as education and environment. Globalization has the internalization of education and can improve the quality of teaching and learning process, it’s because encourages acceptance of various culture and integrates this in the teaching and learning process .The Impact of Globalization on Education Sector are organizational structure, education polices, curriculum, pedagogy and assessment. Globalization remains a pivotal topic in many schools of thought, and countries being a topic of controversy even in the local economies today. Planning strategy and leadership strategy are main aspects to consider that relate to organizational structure and globalization. Globalization is the indispensable trend of many organization .Organization has faced a lot of challenges from globalization such as communication, culture, technology and transportation etc. It requires top leader must be having a global outlook, creating global strategies and structure design for global advantage. The process of globalization affects nation states, generate policy meditations and have direct impact upon educational institution. It is no doubt that globalization leads to a better education policy. This is due to education is a vital part to help a nation to complete with other nation. Nowadays, education policy is formed and implemented in a global context. Many countries have become more competitive by working hard to enhance the productivity of the labor force which can be accomplished by introducing new educational policies, programs and reforms that prepare children to compete in the global labor force. There have been new education policies that introduce reforms in curriculum, pedagogy and evaluation seeking to boost competitiveness among nation, states. That is globalization has reformed and redesigned the education policy, curriculum and assessment.
3.Significance of the Study
Education is called for to provide all members of society with the skills, values, information and attitudes needed to survive in an uncertain world. Education is a light that provides guidance in life. People all over the world are more connected with each other. There is need of understanding of interaction of human society and environment all the more. Global Culture deeply affects educational policies, practices and institutions. Educational globalization means wider and broader educational opportunities for citizens (Lam, 2010) .Globalization enhance the diversity of learning chances to people globally, regardless of the difficulty of measuring the content, quality and reliability of higher education beyond national boundaries. Education in global society has greater responsibility of shaping preferred futures of the students. Understanding the effect of globalization on teaching and learning is essential for policy maker, reform designer and educational leader and the person who make revolution.
Literature Survey method is applied in this study and the data are collected from books, journal and periodicals, websites.
5. Objectives and Questions of the Study
5.1 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are as follows;
5.2 Research Questions
1. What are the teaching revolutions in global context in Myanmar?
2. What are the challenges facing teaching revolution in global context?
6. Delimitations of the Study
This paper ‘’ How Globalization Influence Teaching Revolution in Myanmar’’ focuses especially on teaching revolutions in global context in Myanmar. This paper also focuses on teaching method, the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in education and assessment.
7. Results and Discussions
In teaching with global context, teaching methodology, the use of Information and Communication Technology in education and assessment are the crucial parts. The aims of teaching with global perspectives are creating global citizens, having understanding of how the world works, participating in the community at the range of levels, from the local to global, making the world a more equitable and sustainable place, interconnecting and interdependence, having responsibility and cooperation. In teaching with global perspectives, learning process is student centered learning, experiential learning, inquiry-based learning, enabling critical literacy and using current issues, balancing study and critical appraisal, developing individual informed opinions, having commitment to Human rights, Practicing active citizenships, involvement in communities activities and campaigns, identifying, investigating and evaluating alternative courses on action. And it includes cooperative learning, discussion, problem based learning, case studies, simulation and role playing, etc. The most popular teaching methods used in Myanmar are discussion method, cooperative learning and problem –based learning (JICA, 2013).Discussion method includes teaching with multiple perspectives, global issues and cross cultural experiences. Cooperative learning is an educational approach which aims to organize classroom activities into academic and social learning experiences. There is much more to cooperative learning than merely arranging students into groups, and it has been described as “structuring positive interdependence.” Cooperative learning may be successful cooperation and communication and reduce competition. Problem based learning is a student –centered pedagogy in which students learn about a subject through the experience of solving an open-ended problem found in trigger material (education wellbeing educator). The problem based learning process involves working in small group of learners and deal with the real life situation.
The second thing of teaching revolution is globalization is the use of Information and Communication and Technology. The term Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is also used to refer to the convergence of audio- visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. Ministry of Education pointed out that in Myanmar, there are (47363) Basic Education Schools and among them, (1156) schools have multi- media classrooms, (439) schools have three platform classrooms, (1107) schools are equipped with 2 platforms (video and audio), and (17072) are schools equipped with 1 platform (audio). Information and communication technology (ICT) can affect the curriculum, teaching/ learning process, teacher’s roles, educational management, assessment and evaluation. Information and communication technology ( ICT) education opens the door to lifelong learning, enables simulation, role-playing and decision making, exercises facilitates virtual/real communities, translate speech into text (or sign language) and vice versa for special education, Get easy access to information and communication (e-mail, web, blogs, wikis etc., trains skills in new illiteracies, that are of paramount importance in today’s society, use communication aids along with specialized software for classroom activities. The benefits of Information and communication technology ICT education may be accessible course anytime, anywhere, promote active engagement with content, enhance problem based learning and improve information gathering skills, improve communication between lecturers and students.
The third teaching revolution in global context is assessment. Assessment is a process by which information is obtained relative to some known objective or goal. Assessment is a broad term that that includes testing. A test is a special form of assessment. Tests are assessments made under contrived circumstances especially so that they may be administered. Types of assessment are formative assessment, diagnostic assessment, summative assessment, product assessment, performance assessment, formal assessment, informal assessment, selected response and constructed response assessment, standardized tests, teacher made test, local assessment, traditional assessment, alternative assessment, authentic assessment, cognitive assessment , psychomotor assessment and affective assessment.
Formative assessment is used to provide during feedback during the instructional process and diagnostic assessment is used to identify the current knowledge and/ or misconception about the topic and summative assessment is used to sum up learning at the end of the instructional process (P. Black, 2010). Formative assessment is assessment for learning and summative assessment is assessment of learning. Assessment of learning enables to use information about students’ knowledge, understanding and skills to inform their teaching. Teachers provide feeding back to students about their learning and how to improve. Assessment of learning assists teachers to use evidence of student learning to assess student achievement against learning goals and standards. Assessment as learning involves students in the learning process where they monitor their own progress, ask questions and practice skills. Student use self – assessment and teacher feedback to reflect on their learning, consolidate their understanding and work towards learning goals. Product assessment is the quantitative assessment of various types of products developed by students in enrichment programs. Performance assessment is a measure of assessment based on authentic tasks such as activities, exercises or problems that require student to show that they can do. Some performance assessment tasks are designed to have students demonstrate their understanding by applying their knowledge to a particular situation. Examples of performance assessment are singing, playing a piano, performing gymnastics or completed paper, project. Formal assessments are tests that systematically measure how well a student has mastered learning outcomes. Examples of formal assessment are final exams, graded homework, chapter tests and research paper. Informal assessment are a procedure for obtaining information that can be used to make judgment about characteristics of children or programs using means other than standardized instruments. Examples of informal assessments are projects, presentations, experiments, demonstrations or performances, portfolios, asking questions during class, or through informal observations of interaction. Teacher made tests are used to evaluate the progress of the students in school. However, the specific use of tests may be varied from school to school and teacher to teacher. The test results can be used for students, teachers, and for the administrative purposes. These tests are very simple to use and easy for the students. Teachers can assess the strengths and weaknesses of the students. Tests are conducted continuously and children get immediate feedback. Traditional assessment is the conventional methods of testing which usually produce a written document, such as quiz, exam or paper. Standardized tests, most state achievement test, and high school graduation examination are also example of traditional tests. Local assessments’ goal is to provide reliable and valid information to inform instructional improvement and creation, distribution, training, scanning, and scoring. Alternative assessment refers to procedures and techniques which can be used within the context of the instruction and can be easily be incorporated into the daily activities of the school or the classroom ( Hamayan 1995). Authentic assessment is the measurement of “intellectual accomplishments that are worthwhile, significant, and meaningful’’ as contrasted to multiple choice standardized tests. Cognitive assessment assesses the cognitive capabilities of human and other animals. Affective assessment involves the measurement of the personal aspects that impact learning, such as student perceptions, viewpoints, feelings, attitudes, etc., Psychomotor assessment includes checklist format (both teacher observed and recorded data during the class) and pre- test on day one of the unit and post- test on the final day.
Comprehensive Education Sector Review pointed out that chapter end tests, midterm examination and final examination are held in basic education level in Myanmar. In these exam, questions are asked for (25) marks and question are made by teacher.Students who are not passed in tests and examination can sit diagnostic tests (remedial). Most assessment used in basic education in Myanmar are traditional assessment, teacher made assessment, formative assessment, diagnostic assessment, formal assessment, structured response assessment and constructed assessment. Most of Questions used in examination assess the cognitive skill, psychomotor skill and affective skill of the students. There is portfolio assessment like cumulative personal record of the students in Myanmar. In basic education, kindergarten, Grade 1 and Grade 2 have no examination. Grade 11 need to sit matriculation examination and it is national examination and the question is the same all over the country. To attend the university, the student who complete basic education need to sit university entrance exam. In the university level, the students are assessed through tests and performance assessment (such as presentation paper).
The challenges facing in teaching revolution in global context are teacher training, resources and learning environment. In Myanmar, there are one ICT training mainstream is Post Graduate Diploma in Multimedia Arts .The teachers are not only responsible for teaching information and communication technology, computer but also responsible for teaching the other subjects to students. And, training program of information and communication technology and computer teaching is done occasionally and not every month. Only administrative staff, management and planning staff can attend this training program every month. Moreover, one Post Graduate Diploma in Multimedia Arts teacher per one school is in township area. Although, there is ICT teacher in the school, it is not enough computers in the school. On the other side, there are multimedia classrooms in the schools, they are used rarely. And dealing with the assessment, nowadays the government has made many reforms in education sector (i.e., curriculum reforming, changing education structure and efforts to eliminate exam –oriented approach), there are still left exam_-oriented approach in Myanmar. To overcome these issues, there should be ICT training program for teachers every month. Moreover there should be ICT training teachers (Post Graduate Diploma in Multi media Arts Teachers) in accordance with the total number of students in both urban and rural areas. To be sufficient in material resources, the principal and the respective executive officers should report to Ministry of Education and should cooperate with stakeholders. Besides, the quality assurance team should also supervise and monitor the use of multimedia classroom thoroughly when they monitor the schools. And to eliminate the exam- oriented approach, performance assessment and informal assessment should be used with formal assessment. And then, to become effective assessment, these strategies should be used, such as clearly identify learning goals, identify prerequisite skills, pre-assess students’ existing knowledge base, understanding and skills, identify students’ interests, identify students’ preferred ways of learning and use ongoing/formative assessment.
8 . Conclusion
In a nut shell, globalization cannot be avoided because it affects to the whole aspects of human life, including education. Therefore, the teaching revolution as the tool and program of education should be designed considering global trends.
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Ya Min Aung
Dr. Xiong Chun
School of Education
Central China Normal University
Inle Lake Myanmar Attribution: Marc Veraart from Haarlem, Netherlands, CC BY 2.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0>, via Wikimedia Commons